Bouillon is the French word for "broth", is used as a synonym for it. Chicken stock is cooked for 6 to 8 hours if the traditional method is followed. Fish stock is made with finely chopped mirepoix. Fish stock should be cooked for 20 -- 25 minutes -- cooking any longer. Concentrated fish stock is called " fish fumet. Fond blanc, or white stock, is made by using white mirepoix. Chicken bones are the most common for fond blanc.
Fond brun, or brown stock; the brown color is achieved by roasting the mirepoix. This adds a rich, full flavour.
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Veal bones are the most common type used in a fond brun. Tomato paste is added; the acid in the paste helps break down the connective tissue helping accelerating the formation of gelatin, as well as giving color to the stock. Glace viande is stock made from bones from veal, concentrated by reduction.
Ham stock, common in Cajun cooking, is made from ham hocks. Jus is a rich reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meats. Many of these are started by deglazing the roasting pan reducing to achieve the rich flavour desired. Lamb stock is cooked for several hours. To make a lamb jus, start with a chicken stock and roasted lamb necks and bones. Master stock is a special Chinese stock used for poaching meats, flavoured with soy sauce, ginger and other aromatics. Prawn stock is made from boiling prawn shells, it is used in Southeast Asian dishes such as laksa.
Veal stock is cooked for several hours. Vegetable stock is made only of vegetables. Remouillage is a second stock made from the same set of bones. A few basic rules are prescribed for preparing stock: The stock ingredients are simmered starting with cold water; the collagen from connective tissue and skin is denatured into gelatin through gentle, long simmering , thickening the stock somewhat. Stocks are simmered with bubbles just breaking the surface, not boiled. Japan Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean , it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the " Land of the Rising Sun ".
Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6, islands; the four largest are Honshu , Hokkaido and Shikoku , which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of million is the world's tenth largest. About The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China , followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe , has characterized Japan's history. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, , during the occupation led by SCAP , the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer.
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Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index , its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate.
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty.
How are you". These Early Portuguese traders brought the word. Meat Meat is animal flesh, eaten as food. Humans have killed animals for meat since prehistoric times; the advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, rabbits and cattle. This led to their use in meat production on an industrial scale with the aid of slaughterhouses.
Meat is composed of water and fat, it is edible raw, but is eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Unprocessed meat will spoil or rot within hours or days as a result of infection with and decomposition by bacteria and fungi. Meat is important in economy and culture though its mass production and consumption has been determined to pose risks for human health and the environment.
Many religions have rules about which meat may not be eaten. Vegetarians may abstain from eating meat because of concerns about the ethics of eating meat , environmental effects of meat production or nutritional effects of consumption; the word meat comes from the Old English word mete. The term is related to mad in Danish , mat in Swedish and Norwegian, matur in Icelandic and Faroese , which mean'food'.
The word mete exists in Old Frisian to denote important food, differentiating it from swiets and dierfied. Most meat refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may describe other edible tissues such as offal.
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Meat is sometimes used in a more restrictive sense to mean the flesh of mammalian species raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish, other seafood , poultry , or other animals. In the context of food, meat can refer to "the edible part of something as distinguished from its covering", for example, coconut meat. Paleontological evidence suggests that meat constituted a substantial proportion of the diet of the earliest humans.
Early hunter-gatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such as bison and deer; the domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period, allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production. Animals that are now principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations: Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture as early as the 8th millennium BCE.
Today, more than sheep-breeds exist. Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus and Bos taurus indicus, both descended from the now-extinct aurochs ; the breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animals best suited for work or dairy purposes, began in the middle of the 18th century. Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, are known to have existed about BCE in modern-day Hungary and in Troy. Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times. Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products.
Other animals have been raised or hunted for their flesh; the type of meat consumed varies much between different cultures, changes over time, depending on factors such as tradition and the availability of the animals. The amount and kind of meat consumed varies by income, both between countries and within a given country. Horses are eaten in France , Italy and Japan , among other countries. Horses and other large mammals such as reindeer were hunted during the late Paleolithic in western Europe. Dogs are consumed in South Korea and Vietnam.
Dogs are occasionally eaten in the Arctic regions. Dog meat has been consumed in various parts of the world, such as Hawaii , Japan and Mexico. Charles Porter Tho. Their Majesties army being now ordered into their Winter-quarters in several parts of this kingdom by Ireland 3 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Whereas it is of great importance as well to the inhabitants of the city of Dublin, as also that part of their Majesties army that is garrisoned here; by Ireland 3 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
By the Lords Justices and Council. By the Commissioners for stating the accounts of the army by Ireland 3 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
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